Over million women and girls have experienced FGM in the 29 countries in which it is concentrated. Over eight million have been infibulated , a practice found largely in Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia and Sudan. In the past several decades, efforts have been made by global health organizations, such as the WHO, to end the practice. FGM is condemned by international human rights instruments. FGM is also considered a form a violence against women by the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women , which was adopted by the United Nations in ; it states: "Article Two: Violence against women shall be understood to encompass, but not be limited to, the following: a Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including [ Hymenorrhaphy refers to the practice of thickening the hymen, or, in some cases, implanting a capsule of red liquid within the newly created vaginal tissue.
This new hymen is created to cause physical resistance, blood, or the appearance of blood, at the time that the individual's new husband inserts his penis into her vagina. This is done in cultures where a high value is placed on female virginity at the time of marriage. In these cultures, a woman may be punished, perhaps violently, if the community leaders deem that she was not virginal at the time of consummation of her marriage.
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Labia stretching is the act of elongating the labia minora through manual manipulation pulling or physical equipment such as weights. In May , an article published in the British Medical Journal strongly criticised this craze, citing its popularity being rooted in commercial and media influences.
Some women undergo vaginoplasty or labiaplasty procedures to alter the shape of their vulvas to meet personal or societal aesthetic standards. In the article Designer Vaginas by Simone Weil Davis, she talks about the modification of woman's vagina and the outside influences women are pressured with, which can cause them to feel shame towards their labia minora. She states that the media, such as pornography, creates an unhealthy view of what a "good looking vagina" is and how women feel that their privates are inferior and are therefore pressured to act upon that mindset.
These insecurities are forced upon women by their partners and other women as well. The incentive to participate in labia- and vaginoplasty may also come about in an effort to manage women's physical attributes and their sexual behavior, treating their vagina as something needing to be managed or controlled and ultimately deemed "acceptable". Clitoral hood reduction is a form of hoodplasty.
When performed with the consent of the adult individual, it can be considered an elective plastic surgery procedure for reducing the size and the area of the clitoral hood prepuce in order to further expose the clitoral glans of the clitoris ; the therapeutic goal is thought to improve the sexual functioning of the woman, and the aesthetic appeal of her vulva. The reduction of the clitoral prepuce tissues usually is a sub-ordinate surgery within a labiaplasty procedure for reducing the labia minora ; and occasionally within a vaginoplasty procedure.
When these procedures are performed on individuals without their consent, they are considered a form of female genital mutilation. Castration in the genital modification and mutilation context is the removal of the testicles. Sometimes the term meaning "cutting" is also used to refer to penis removal, but that is less common.
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Castration has been performed in many cultures throughout history, but is now rare. In the 21st century, castration has been reported among slave boys in South Asia. It should not be confused with chemical castration. The removal of one testicle sometimes referred to as unilateral castration is usually done in the modern world only for medical reasons.
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Circumcision is the surgical removal of part or all of the foreskin from the penis. It is usually performed for religious , cultural or medical reasons and leaves some or all of the glans permanently exposed. Jews and many Americans typically have their infants circumcised during the neonatal period, while Filipinos , most Muslims and African tribes such as the Maasai and Xhosa circumcise in teenage years or childhood as an initiation into adulthood. In modern medicine, circumcision may be used as treatment for severe phimosis or recurrent balanitis that has not responded to more conservative treatments.
Advocacy is often centered on preventive medicine , while opposition is often centered on human rights particularly the bodily integrity of the infant when circumcision is performed in the neonatal period and the potentially harmful side effects of the procedure.
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The World Health Organization estimates that one-third of the world's men are circumcised;the majority of circumcised male population is located in Muslim countries and in the United States , although there are various explanations for why the infant circumcision rate in the US is different from comparable countries. In the American Academy of Pediatrics stated that health benefits of non-therapeutic circumcision aren't great enough to recommend it for every newborn, and that the benefits outweigh the risks, so that the procedure may be done for families who choose it.
Foreskin restoration is the partial recreation of the foreskin after its removal by circumcision. Surgical restoration involves grafting skin taken from the scrotum onto a portion of the penile shaft. Nonsurgical methods involve tissue expansion by stretching the penile skin forward over the glans penis with the aid of tension. Nonsurgical restoration is the preferred method as it is less costly and typically yields better results than surgical restoration.
A foreskin restoration device may be of help to men pursuing nonsurgical foreskin restoration. While restoration cannot recreate the nerves or tissues lost to circumcision, it can recreate the appearance and some of the function of a natural foreskin.
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Infibulation literally means to close with a clasp or a pin. The word is used to include suturing of the foreskin over the head of the penis. Infibulation is seen in rock art in Southern Africa. Early Greek infibulation consisted of piercing the foreskin and applying a gold, silver or bronze ring annulus , a metal clasp fibula or pin. This was done for aesthetic reasons. The Greeks also used a nonsurgical form of infibulation by wearing a kynodesme. In the Victorian era, both in the UK and in the United States, routine infibulation was second only to circumcision in the "war on masturbation" and was used in orphanages and mental institutions, supported by leading physicians.
In modern times, male infibulation may be performed for personal preferences or as part of BDSM. Also known as total castration or nullification , emasculation is the combination of castration and penectomy.
Due to the high risk of death from bleeding and infection, it was often considered a punishment equivalent to a death sentence. It was part of the eunuch-making of the Chinese court , and it was widespread in the Arab slave trade. A castrated slave was worth more, and this offset the losses from death. Nullification or "nullo" is the term used by the modern body modification community.
In modern day South Asia , some members of Hijra communities reportedly undergo emasculation. It is called nirwaan and seen as a rite of passage. Pearling or genital beading is a form of body modification, the practice of permanently inserting small beads made of various materials beneath the skin of the genitals—of the labia, or of the shaft or foreskin of the penis. As well as being an aesthetic practice, this is usually intended to enhance the sexual pleasure of partners during vaginal or anal intercourse. Penectomy involves the partial or total amputation of penis.
Sometimes, the removal of the entire penis was done in conjunction with castration , or incorrectly referred to as castration. Removing the penis was often performed on eunuchs and high ranking men who would frequently be in contact with women, such as those belonging to a harem. The Hijra of India may remove their penis as an expression of their gender identity.
In the medical field, removal of the penis may be performed for reasons of gangrene or cancer. Penis removal may occur through unintentional genital injury, such as during routine neonatal circumcision mishaps      .
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In the ulwaluko circumcision ceremony, which is performed by spear, accidental penectomy is a serious risk. Penis removal for purposes of assault or revenge is overwhelmingly a female-on-male crime, particularly in Thailand. Lorena Bobbit infamously removed her husband's penis in In some circumstances it may be possible to reattach the penis. Penile subincision is a form of genital modification involves a urethrotomy and vertically slitting the underside of the penis from the meatus towards to the base. It is performed by people of many cultures, such as the Indigenous Australians , the Arrente , the Luritja , the Samburu , the Samoans , and the Native Hawaiians.
It may also be performed for personal preference.
Penile subincision may leave a man with an increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases , issues with fertility due to lack of control over what direction the sperm goes after ejaculation , and may require a man to sit down while urinating. A dorsal slit also known as superincision is an incision made along the upper length of the foreskin with the intention to expose the glans penis without removing skin or tissue. A few examples of Old Kingdom [ It may be performed as a part of traditional customs, such as those in the Pacific Islands and the Philippines.
In the medical field, it may be performed for as an alternative to circumcision when circumcision is undesired or impractical. It remains a rare surgery and practice overall.